units-egs.txt
Prefix Symbol Multiples
yotta Y 10^24 sextillionfold
zetta Z 10^21 septillionfold
exa E 10^18 quintillionfold
peta P 10^15 quadrillionfold
tera T 10^12 trillionfold
giga G 10^9 billionfold
mega M 10^6 millionfold
kilo k 10^3 thousandfold
hecto h 10^2 hundredfold
deka da 10 tenfold
deci d 10^-1 tenth part
centi c 10^-2 hundredth part
milli m 10^-3 thousandth part
micro (mu) 10^-6 millionth part
nano n 10^-9 billionth part
pico p 10^-12 trillionth part
femto f 10^-15 quadrillionth part
atto a 10^-18 quintillionth part
zepto z 10^-21 sextillionth part
yocto y 10^-24 septillionth part
Definition: A.BCDE(FG) means FG is the uncertainty of last 2 digits. (ie: DE +/- FG)
Unitless:
Defective number: Number whose divisors add up to less than the number itself.
eg: 10 (1 + 2 + 5 = 8)
All power of 2 greater or equal to 4 are defective by 1. (therefore called "slightly defective")
4: 1 + 2 = 3
8: 1 + 2 + 4 =7
16: 1 + 2 +4 + 8 =15
32: 1 + 2 + 4 + 8 + 16 = 31
Excessive number: Nuber whose divisors add up to more than the number itself.
eg: 12 (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 6 = 16)
Nobody has every been able to find a "slightly excessive" number.
(A number whose divisors add up to one more than the number itself.)
(Nor has anybody ever been able to disprove their existance.)
Perfect numbers: A number whose divisors add up exactly to the number itself.
1st 5 examples::
6= 1 + 2 + 3
28 = 1 + 2 + 4 + 7 + 14
464
8,128
33,550,336
8,589,869,056
(Pythagoras noted that all perfect numbers are a sum of a series of consecutive counting numbers)
6 = 1 + 2 + 3
28= 1 + 2 + 3+ 4 + 5 + 6 + 7
496 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 8 + 9 + ... + 30 + 31
8,128 = 1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8 + 9 .... + 126 + 127
Euclid discovered that all perfect numbers fit the form (2^n) x (2^(n+1)-1)
eg: 6= 2^1 x (2^2 - 1)
28= 2^2 x (2^3 - 1)
296= 2^4 x (2^5 - 1)
8,128= 2^6 x (2^7 - 1)
2^216,090 x (2^216,091 - 1) is a perfect number with > 130,000 digits.
-- Amiclable numbers: friendly pairs are pairs of numbers such that each numer is the sum of the divisors of the other #.
eg: 228: Sum of divisors = 1+2+4+5+10+11+20+22+44+55+110 = 220
220: sum of divisors = 1+2+3+71+142 = 220
OThers: 17296 & 18416
9,363,584 & 9,437,056
1,184 & 1,210
10^87 # of all particles in universe (singh, 161)
8.0658175170943878571660636856404x10^67 = # of different orders a deck of cards can be arranged.(=52!)
26 - the only whole # sandwiched between a square and a cube - proved by Fermat.
*All primes fit into one of 2 catagories: 4n+1 or 4n-1. in 1749 Euler proved that all primes of 4n+1 can be written as a sum of 2 squares while no primes of 4n-1 can.
pi to 39 digits can describe diameter of universe within the width of hydrogen atom.
Here are the first 233 digits:
3.1415926535897932384626433832795028841971693993751058209749445923078164062862
089986280348253421170679821480865132823066470938446095505822317253594081284811
174502841027019385211055596446229489549303819644288109756659334461284756482337
If you want to calculate more, you can use this convergent series:
pi = 4(1/1 - 1/3 + 1/5 - 1/7 + 1/9 - 1/11 + 1/13 - 1/5 . . .)
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ratios
(mass of proton)/(mass of electron) = 1836.152701(37)
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Fine structure constant, alpha, defined as [elementary charge squared]/[2 x permittivity constant x Planck constant x speed of light] = 1/137, a dimentionless constant central to theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED) which combines quantim physics with theory relativity.
See Electrical charge / Coulomb's Law for permittivity constant.
See Energy, quantitization, for Planck Constant.
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Distance:
definition: 1 meter (m) == the lenght of the path traveled by light in a vacuum in 1/299,792,458 of a second
See also derived units speed.
1 x 10^-18 m appx diameter of electron & quark (at MOST)
1 x 10^-15 m appx diameter of proton.
1 x 10^-15 m to 1x10^-14 m = radius of typical nucleus.
1 x 10^-12 m = 1 Picometer
5.3 x 10^-11 m = Ave Distance between electron & central proton in Hydrogen Atom.
7.4 x 10^-11 m =(0.74 A) = bond length H-H in H2
.3-1.50 x 10^-10 = Radius of Typical Atom (Ave 1x10^-10m)
1 x 10^-10 m = 1 A
1.10 A = C-H bond in CH4
300 A appx diameter Rhinovirus
3.5 x 10^-7m (0.00035 mm) ~ Wavelength of violet light
7.0 x 10^-7m (0.0007 mm) ~ wavelength of red light.
0.2 micrometer-diamter of small bacteria.
2 micrometer (2 x 10^-6 meters)- diameter of typical bacteria
12 micrometers - diameter of human liver cell.
200 micrometers - diameter of amoeba.
Meter The metre is defined the length of the path travelled by light in vacuum during a time interval of 1/299 792 458 of a second.
Statue of Liberty
300 m (984 feet) = Height of Eiffel Tower in Paris
417 m (1,368 feet) & 417 m (1,362 feet) - (110 stories) World Trade Center in New York
8,858 meters = 29,064 feet = height of Mount Everest above sea level
11,887 meters = a typical cruising altitude of a transpacific commercial passenger flight.
10 km (6.2 miles) Depth of deepest drill hole
400 km typical space shuttle altitude.
35,700 km (+/- ~100) altitude of geosyncrynous orbit of communications satelite.
Circumfrence of earth: 40,075 km (24,902 miles) at equator.
40,008 km (24,860 miles) through poles.
Diameter at equater of Objects in Solar System.
km miles
Charon 1,192 741 (Pluto's moon)
Pluto 2,290 1,423
Moon 3,475 2,159
Mercury 4,878 3,031
Garymede 5,262 3,270 Jupiter's largest satelite.
Mars 6,794 4,221
Venus 12,104 7,520
Earth 12,756 7,926
Neptune 50,530 31,329
Uranus 51,118 31,763
Saturn 120,536 74,898
Jupiter 142,984 88,846
Sun 1,394,000 866,000
Moon: Distance from Earth: 356,334 km (221,463 m) to 405,503 km (251,968 miles) Ave: 384,392 km (238,857 m)(varies 12.79%)
Minutes of Arc: 29.37 to 33.48
Light, distance traveled/second: 299,792 km (186,282 miles)
Earth to Sun: 147.1 milion miles km (91.4 million miles) to 152.1 million km - 94.5 million miles (varies 5.4%)
(32.60 minutes of arc to 31.63 minutes of arc.)
Planet: Ave Distance from sun:
Km. Miles.
Mercury 57,909,100 35,983,000
Venus 108,208,600 67,237,700
Earth 149,598,000 92,955,900 (Light takes 8 minutes 20 seconds to reach this far)
Mars 227,939,200 141,634,800
Jupiter 778,298,400 483,612,200
Saturn 1,427,010,000 888,184,000
Uranus 2,869,600,000 1,782,000,000
Neptune 4,496,700,000 2,794,000,000
Pluto 5,913,490,000 3,666,000,000
a light year
4.3 light years (40,678,000,000,000 kilometers): distance of Proxima(Alpha) Centauri, closest star to solar system.
8.6 light years- distance to Sirius (an example of a binary Star System.)
12.5 light years - 33 stars within (www.anzwers.org)
16 light years - Altair (in Aquila. part of summer triangle)
25 light years - Vega (in Lyra. part of summer triangle)
25 light years -112 stars within (incl the sun) (www.anzwers.org)
50 light years -1,800 stars within this range - 133 visible stars within this range.
250 light years - 1/3rd of all stars visible to naked eye are within this.
1,500 light years - Denaub (in Cygnus. part of summer triangle. one of mightiest stars known. 25 times as massive as the sun. 60,0000 as luminous.)
28,000 light years ~ sun's appx distance from edge of solar system
30,000 light years - distance from us to center of milkey way.
100,000 light years (=946,000,000,000,000 km) - Diameter of Milky Way (estimated 100,000,000,000 (100 billion) stars.)
2,000,000 (2 milion) light years = appx distance of Andromedia Galaxy, the most distant object that can be seen with the naked eye. (Gardner, 6)
18,000,000 (18 milion) light years = 172,080,000,000 kilometers = appx distance of the spiral galaxy M81 in Ursa Major. (Gardner, 5)
10,000,000,000 (10 billion) light years = 94,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 kilometers = estimated distance away of quasar PKS 2000-330, one of the furthest objects we can detect, appear to be (Gardner, 5)
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Mass:
definition: kilogram (kg) this prototype (a certain platinum-iridium cylinder) shall be considered the unit of mass.
9.1093897 (54) x 10^-31 kg = mass of electron (~0.0005483 AMU, 0.51099906(15) MeV/c^2)
1.6605402(10)x10^-27 kg = 1 AMU (1 AMU == 1/12 mass of Carbon atom containing 6 protons +6 neutrons) = 931.494 MeV (is less than (6 * mass of proton + 6 * mass of neutron) because of the mass given up to be bound as C12)
1.6726231(1)x10^27 kg = Mass of proton (1.007276470(12) AMU = 938.27231(28) MeV/c^2)
1.6750 x 10^-24 grams (1.008665 AMU) Mass of Neutron
3.14 kg (6 lbs 15 oz) weight of my daughter Alexia at birth
70 kg weight of "Ave Man." (whatever that means.)
5.97 x 10^24 kg (6 septilion, 588 quintilion short tons.) (estimate based on volume of ellipsoid & mean density of 5.515 g/cm^3) mass of earth
1.8x10^27 tons (330,000 x's mas of earth) mass of sun (333,000 times mass of earth.)
(73.43% H., 24.85% He., small amts other elements incl O, C, Fe, Ne, N, Silicon, Magnesium Sulfur.)
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Mass byline:
Sun is 333,00 times the mass of the earth
The mass of entire planetary system except sun is 480 x's mass of earth
Which means that the sun contains 99.866% of mass of the solar system.
Jupiter is 317.83 x's the mass of earth
Saturn is 95.15 x's the mass of earth
Neptune is 17.54 x's the mass of earth
Uranus is 14.54 x's the mass of earth
Venus is 81.5 % the mass of earth
Mars is 10% the mass of earth.
4,200,000 tons of mass are converted to energy every second in the sun. This requires the consumption of 560,000,000 tons of hydrogen converted to helium/second (VfH 192. Nuclear Physics text pg 597)
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Time
definition: second (s) ==the duration of 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation coresponding to the transition between the tho hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom.
365 days = 8760 hrs = 525,600 minutes = 31,536,000 seconds
Planet Rotation Period Revolution Period
Mercury 58.6 days 87.97 days
Venus 243 days 224.7 days
Earth 0.99 days 365.26 days
Mars 1.03 days 1.88 years
Jupiter 0.41 days 11.86 years
Saturn 0.45 days 29.46 years
Uranus 0.72 days 84.01 years
Neptune 0.67 days 164.79 years
Pluto 6.39 days 248.59 years
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Electrical current
definition: amphere (A) == that constant current which, if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite legth, of negligible circular cross section, and placed 1 meter apart in a vacuum, would produce between these conductors a fource equal to 2x10^-7 newton ber meter of length.
V=IR. P=IV. (1 Volt*Amp = 1 J/s = 1 Watt)
1 Volt*Amphere = 1 J/s = 1 Watt = 1 Amp^2*Ohm = 1 Volt^2/Ohm
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Temperature.
definition:Degree Kelvin the fraction 1/273.16 of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water.
0.00 K (-273.15 C) (-459.7 F) Absolute zero.
0.95 K Melting point Helium.
4.22 K [or -268.93 °C (-452.07 °F)] (liquid range: 3.27 K) Boiling point Helium.
14.01 K [or -259.14 °C (-434.45 °F)] Melting point Hydrogen
20.28 K [or -252.87 °C (-423.17 °F)] (liquid range: 6.27 K) Boiling Point Hydrogen
63.05 K [or -210.1 °C (-346.18 °F)] Melting point Nitrogen
77.36 K [or -195.79 °C (-320.42 °F)] (liquid range: 14.31 K) Boiling point Nitrogen
-45 C A typical temperature at 11,887 meters altitude.
234.32 K [or -38.83 °C (-37.89 °F)] Melting point mercury
273.15 K (0 C) (32 F) = Freezing point of water
373.12 K (100 C) (212 F) = Boiling point of water.
629.88 K [or 356.73 °C (674.11 °F)] (liquid range: 395.56 K) Boiling Point mercury
1,234.93 K [or 961.78 °C (1763.2 °F)] melting point silver
1,337.33 K [or 1064.18 °C (1947.52 °F)] melting point gold
1,811 K [or 1538 °C (2800 °F)] melting point Iron
2,041.4 K melting point Platinum.
3,030 K (2,760 C) (5000F) Estimated temp of center of earth.
3,800 K Melting point carbon
5,500C (10,000 F) Temp of Surface of Sun (Photosphere)
100,000 K Temp of Nuclear fission bomb explosion.
1,000,000 C (1,800,000 F) Temp of Sun's outer atmosphere (Chromosphere)
15,000,000 - 20,000,000 C (27,000,000 F) Center of Sun
100,000,000 K the temp of a Hydrogen bomb exlposion
2,000,000,000 K the temp of Hotest Star's interiors
6,000,000,000 K - Theoretical maximal temp that can be built up in the universe. (a greater temp would initiate supernova explosion that would cool it off.) (VfH pg 198)
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Amount of substance
definition: mole (mol) == the amount of a substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there are in 0.012 kg (12 g) of carbon 12.
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Luminous intensity
definition: candela (cd) == the luminous intensity, in the perpendicular direction, of a surface of 1/600,000 sqaure meter of a black body at the temperature of freezing platinum on a pressure 101.325 newton per square meter.
If you don't have a light meter with a foot candle scale, you can use a camera with a built in light meter. To obtain light intensity for a proposed house plant location, set film speed dial to ASA100 and aim camera at a white sheet of paper or cardboard. Locate white paper or cardboard in the proposed plant location. Be sure not to block light from paper or cast a shadow while recording the light intensity. The shutter speed reading opposite F stop 4 will give the approximate light intensity in foot candles. For example, if the F stop calls for 1/60 second exposure, the light intensity is 60 foot candles.
Star Magnitudes
Visible to naked eye 6
Visible in 50 mm binoculars 9
Visible in 6 inch amateur telescope 13
Visible in 12 inch telescope 15
Visible in 200 inch telescope 20
Hubble telescope 30
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Electrical Charge
definition: coulomb (C) == the amount of charge that passes though any cross section of wire in 1 second if there is a current of 1 ampheres in the wire.
dq = i*dt
[ie: dq (in coulombs) is the charge transfered by current i (in ampheres) during interval of time (dt) in seconds]
1.60217733(49)x10^-19 C = Charge of Electron (e)
Approximately 10^19 elementary charges enter and leave a 100-W, 120 V light bulb every second.
Charge is quantitized q=ne, where n=0, +/-1, +/-2, +/-3 . . .,
and e = elementary charge 1.60217733(49)x10^-19 C
** 1 Amp = 1 couloumb/second = 6.24150636^18 electrons/sec.
** See Force, electrostatic, to see how this can be used.
** See Coulombs Law and Gauss' law for related subject.
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Speed: Distance/time
Velocity Terminal, of falling objects (see Force, Drag for more info.)
Oject Terminal Speed (m/s) Distance in which 95% of terminal speed is acheived (meters)
16 lb shot 145 2500
sky diver 60 430
Baseball 42 210
Tennis Ball 20 47
Ping Pong Ball 9 10
Rain Drop, r=1.5 mm 7 6
Parachutist 5 3
809 km/hr a typical cruising speed of a transpacific commerical passenger flight
Speed of sound: Varies depending on media, including temperature, pressure, purit.
In Air at sea level: 0 degrees Celsius, ~ 1191.6 - 1193.22 km/hr (331-331.4 m/sec) (740 - 741.5 miles/hr)
11.2 km/second (25,000 m/hr) Escape velocity from earth
220 km/sec - speed the sun orbits the center of the Milky Way.
3.2 * 10^7 m/s = velocity of a 5.3 MeV proton
(since K=(1/2)mv^2,
v=sqr(2K/m)= sqr(2* 5.3*10^6 eV * 1.60*10^-19 J/eV / 1.67 * 10^-12 kg)
Speed of light in vacuum is exactly: 299,792,458 m/sec (186,282 miles/sec)
Sample problem: What is velocity of a 5.3 MeV proton.
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Acceleration: rate of change of speed. (Change in speed/change in time)
units m/s^2.
acceleration gravity... fluctuates slightly with lattitude and distance from earth. (Latitude because centripital force at equator iecreases g by 0.035m/s^2. (0.35%), and because of the earths buldge.
At see level on equator g=9.78 m/s^2 at poles g=9.83 m/s^2.
g= 9.81 m/s^2 at 5 km above the earth.
9.80 m/s^2 at 10 km
9.68 m/s^2 at 50 km
9.53 m/s^2 at 100 km
8.70 m/s^2 at 400 km (typical space shuttle altitude.)
0.223 m/s^2 at 35,700 km (typical altitude of communications satelites.)
0.0027 m/s^2 at 380,000 km (distance to moon.)
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Area: Length * Width
1184 Square feet: home in Japan (1063 A)
9852 square feet (0.23 Acres) our property in Japan.
Data in regard to the earth: Land area, 148.847x10^6 km2, 57.470x10^6 sq mi. Ocean area, 361.254x10^6 km2, 139.480x10^6 sq mi
AUSTRALIA(includes Oceania) 8,112,000 square km 3,132,000 sq miles
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Volume Cube= Length * Width * Height
Volume of pyramid = area of base times height divided by 3
Volume of cone = area of base times height divided by 3
42 gallon = 1 barrel of crude oil
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Density: Mass/Volume
Air, dry, @ 0 degrees C, 760 mm mercury, 1.29 gm/1000 cc^3
Air, dry at 50 degrees C, 760 mm mercury, 0.07788 lbs/ft^3
Air, dry at 60 degrees C, 760 mm mercury, 0.07640 lbs/ft^3
Air, dry at 70 degrees C, 760 mm mercury, 0.07495 lbs/ft^3
Water 1 gm/cm^3. (1000 kg m^3 at 4°C; 997 kg m^3 at 25°C
Rock ~3.3 g/cm^3.
Earth (Ave) 5.5 g/cm^3.
Pure Iron 7.9 g/cm^3.
Gold~19300 kg/m^3 (19.3 g/cm^3)
Osmium ~22.61 g/cm^3 (second densest element)*
Iridium ~22.65 g/cm^3 (densest element)*
*There is some debate over these desities & which is denser, Osmium vs Iridium.
Sugar, White granulated 12 g/Tablespoon. (46 kcal)
Crisco All-Vegetable shortening: 12 grams/Tablespoon. (3 g Saturated, 3 g polunsaturated, 4 g monounsaturated.)
Oil, Canola. For cooking: 14 g/1 Tablespoon (1 g Saturated 5 g polyunsaturated, 7 g monounsaturated)
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Force: proportional to mass times acceleration.
definition: 1 Newton = force required to accelerate 1 kg one m/second squared (on frictionless surface)
Force of Kinetic Friction, f = (coeficient of kinetic friction) x (normal force acting on survace)
Force of Static friction, f =< (coeficient of static friction)x(normal force acting on surface, N)
Force, Centripetal = (m v^2)/r
Force of Drag, D in turbulent situations = (1/2)(Drag coeficient)(density of air)*A*v^2
Where A==Effective Cross section, and v=speed of fall.
Drag coeficient depends on the shape of the object and is normally between 0.5 and 1.0
**Note that at Terminal speed Drag force, D = Gravitational Force, mg.
**Therefore (1/2)(Drag coeficient)(density of air)*A*v^2 = mg
--> terminal velocity v = square root of {2mg/[(1/2)(Drag coeficient)(density of air)*A]}
--See Velocity terminal.
Newton's Law of Gravitaional Force:
Gravity exerts a force (Fg) = Gravitional Constant (G) times product of masses (m1 x m2) over square of the distance between them (r^2). Fg = G x (m1xm2/r^2)
Gravitational Constant, G=6.67260 x 10^-11 N m^2/kg^2.
--(based on this law, and the mass and radius of earth, we can derive the 'accereration of gravity' g = 9.8 m/s^2 (better described as "free fall acceleration of a body near the earths surface."
The force gravity exerts on various bodies near earth's surface in Newtons, is it's mass in kg times 9.82 m/s^2.
686 Newtons = the force gravity exerts on a 70 kg (154 kg) man
Coulombs Law of Electrostatic Force:
Electrostatic Force (Felec) = [1/(4 x pi x epsilon0)] times product of charges (q1 x q2) over square of the distance between them (r^2). Felec = [1/(4 x pi x epsilon0)] x (q1 * q2)/r^2 :: This is known as Coloumbs Law.
[1/(4 x pi x epsilon0)] == electrostatic constant, and has value of 8.99 x 10^9 N m^2/C^2
*Note the similarity between electrostatic constant units and gravitational constant units.
epsilon0 == permittivity constant, is equal to 8.85 x 10 ^-12 C^2/N m^2
*See Gauss' Law & Fine structure constant, alpha for other use of permmittivity constant, epsilon0.
Force, Magnetic = charge * velocity * B * sin(phi)
--where phi is angle of magnetic field B to velocity.
---(note: when phi 180 or 0 -ie parallel to velocity F=0)
---(note: F is greatest when B is perpendicular to velocity)
--Force is always exerted in plane perpendicular to both magnetic field and velocity.
---(therefore, a steady magnetic field DEFLECTS, but does not speed up or slow down (ie change kinetic energy of) a moving charged particle.
** See Magnetic Field for related topic.
** See Electrical Charge & Field, elecrical for related topic.
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Energy: Ability to do Work.
Energy is quantitized. Ex-Ey = hv, where Ex-Ey is the energy lost by the atom, (carried away by enmittd light), h= Planck constant = 6.63 x 10-34 J * s = 4.14 x 10^-15 eV*s, and v is the frequency of the light emitted.
The amount of energy falling on the Earth's surface from the sun is approximately 5.6 billion billion (quintillion) megajoules per year. Averaged over the entire Earth's surface, this translates into about 5 kilowatt-hours per square meter every day.
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Energy:
1 eV == energy acquired by a particle with unit charge e when accelerated by electric field across a voltage difference of one volt.
1 eV = 1.60217733(49)x10^-19C x 1 V = 1.60217733(49)x10^-19 J
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Fields, Gravitational.
To every point in space near earth we can assign a vector g that represents the acceleration of a test body released at that point resulting from earths gravitational attaraction. If m is the mass of the test body, and F is the gravitational force acting on it, then
g = F/m. (**See acceleration, gravity)
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Fields, Electrical.
In same light, if we place a test body wiith + electrical charge q, then force F will act on it. We describe this electrical field in this reagion and represent it by vector E.
E=F/q. in SI system E is given units Newton/Coulomb.
(Note that E and g are both force/property.)
**See Charge, Electrical for related topic.
**See Gauss Law - related topic.
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MAGNETIC FLUX & Magnetic flux density.
Magnetic Flux Density(Field) B is defined by the equation:
Force, magnetic = qvxB
the MAGNITUDE of Force, magnetic = qvB*sin(phi)
** See Force, magnetic for more details.**
The SI units for B is tesla. 1 tesla = 1 T = 1 Newton/(amp*meter)
1 tesla = 1*10^4 gauss.
Magnetic flux is actually Weber which has units Volts/sec
A Tesla happens to have units of Weber/square meter.
Magnetic field strength has units amphere per meter.
B at surface of Neutron star = 10^8 T
Large research electromagnet = 1.5 T
B near small bar magnet = 10^-2 T
B at surface of earth = 10^-4 T
B in Intrastellar space = 10^-10 T
B, smallest value in shielded room = 10^-14 T
Smallest value in a magnetically shielded room 10^-14 Tesla 10^-10 Gauss
Interstellar space 10^-10 Tesla 10^-6 Gauss
Earth's magnetic field 0.00005 Tesla 0.5 Gauss
Small bar magnet 0.01 Tesla 100 Gauss
Within a sunspot 0.15 Tesla 1500 Gauss
Small NIB magnet 0.2 Tesla 2000 Gauss
Big electromagnet 1.5 Tesla 15,000 Gauss
Strong lab magnet 10 Tesla 100,000 Gauss
Surface of neutron star 100,000,000 Tesla 10^12 Gauss
Magstar 100,000,000,000 Tesla 10^15 Gauss
What is a Tesla? It is a unit of magnetic flux density. It is also equivalent to these other units:
1 weber per square meter
10,000 Gauss (10 kilogauss)
10,000 magnetic field lines per square centimeter
65,000 magnetic field lines per square inch.
!!Need to verify the following!!
Now, 1Gauss is about 6.5 magnetic field lines per square inch.
If you place the tip of your index finger to the tip of your thumb, enclosing approximately 1 square inch, four magnetic field lines would pass through that hole due to the earth's magnetic field!
Gauss is the CGS unit of magnetic flux. CGS means Centimeter, Grams, Seconds. Put quite simply, if you have one gram of a substance, on centimeter from a magnet, in what part of one second will it move to the magnet? Put another way, what weight of a paramagnetic material will move one centimeter to a magnet in one second? --
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Gauss' Law.
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POWER:
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Decibel: measure of relative intensity of sound. 20 db is 10 times louder than 10 db. 30 db is 100 times louder than 10db, etc. 1 Db is the smallest difference between sounds detectable by the human ear.
10 Light whisper
20 Quiet conversation
30 Normal conversation
40 Light traffic
50 Typewriter, Loud conversation
60 Noisy office
70 Normal traffic, Quiet train
80 Rock music. Subway
90 Heavy traffic, Thunder
100 Jet plane at takeoff
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Hardness scale. Introduced 1812 by mineralogist Friedrich Mohs (1773-1839)
10 standard minerals by which the hardness of a nineral is rated.
1 Talc (Hardness 1-2 can be scratched by fingernail.)
2 Gypsum (Hardness 2-3 can be scratched by a copper coin.)
3 Calcite (Hardness 3-6 can be scratched by a steel pocket knife.)
4 Fluorite
5 Apatite
6 Orhoclase (Hardness 6-7 will not scratch glass)
7 Quartz
8 Topas (Hardness 8-18 will scratch glass)
9 Corundum
10 Diamond
PS: Minerals 1) must be found in nature. 2) made of substances which were never organic.
3) Has same chemical makeup wherever it is found. 4) its atoms are arranged in regular pattern and form solid crystals.
vs. rocks are aggregate or combination of one or more minerals, sometimes extended to include clay, loose sand, & certain limestone.
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Frequency. 1 Hertz (Hz) = 1 Cycle/Second
Lowest audible frequency is about 20 Hz.
Highest audible frequency is about 20,000 Hz
Equal Tempered Scale.
Cb 261.63 G 392.00
C# 277.18 G# 415.31
D 293.67 A 440.00
D# 311.13 A# 466.16
E 329.63 B 493.88
F 349.23 Cn 523.25
F# 369.99
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Radioactivity
Curries: The level of radioactivity of a material is given in units of cuies.
One curie is the amount of material undergoing 3.7x10^10 disintegrations/second.
REM: To quantify the biological effects of radiation the roentgen equivalent man is used.
It is defined as the amount of radiation required to produce a certain biological effect.
0-25. A dose around 25 REM may reduce the WBC Count.
25-100. Nausea for about half those exposed, fatigue, changes in blood.
100-200 Nauea, vomiting, fatigue, death possible, susceptible to infection (low WBC)
200-400 Lethal dose for 50% of those exposed, esp. in the absence of treatment. Bone marrow & spleen damaged.
> 600 fatal, possibly even with treatment.
Average doses for exposed people: (Kotz, Chemistry & Chemical Reactivity)
0.002 millirems/yr - Airport x-rays
0.3-1.0 millirems/yr - from TV
0.3 Nuclear power
1.0 Smoke detectors
3 Airline Passenger, 10 flights.
4.0 Global fallout
6.9 Gas Ranges
7.0 brick & masonry
9.0 Clocks
103 Medical x-rays
65 Living in Miami
80 Living in chigago
125 Living in Denver
160 Airline Crew 720 Hrs.
9000 Tobacco, 1.5 packs/day
rem= roentgen equivalent man= absorbed dose of ionizing radiation that produces the same biological effect of 1 rad of x-rays or gamma rays. (ie: the rem of x-rays and gamma rays are equal to rad of x-rays and gamma rays.) For each type of radiation, the number of rads is multiplied by a specific factor to fint the number of rems.
rad==radiation absorbed dose = energy absorption of 100 ergs per gram of irradiated material.
grey (Gy) = 100 rads
sievert (Sv) = 100 rems
becquerel (Bq): 1 becquerel == one disintegration (or other nuclear transformation) per second. (measures radioactive strength of source, but does not consider effects on tissue.)
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Isotope factoids.
There are more than 300 stable isotopes.
There are (about?) 325 nuclides found in nature. 263 of these are stable.
(note: not sure how this coincides with above.)
there are potentially 6000 nuclides, 2000 of these have been identified.
The heaviest is Bi 209 (83 protons, 126 neutrons)
~ 200 of thes stable isotopes have both even # protons & even number of neutrons.)
~ 120 have odd # protons OR odd number of neutrons - with even number of the other.)
Only 4 have both odd # of protons AND odd # of neutrons. - H 2, Li 6, B 10, N 14
Half life of Uranium 238 (Atomic # 92) = 10^9 yrs.
Half life of Lr 257 (Atomic # 103) = 8 seconds.
Radium - discovered in 1898. Radium 226 (most stable isotope) has t-1/2 1600 yrs & gives off 140 calories/hr (per gram????)
Iron is the nucleus with the lowest energy state. Heavier atoms loose energy by breaking down. Lighter atoms loose energy via fusion. Iron is the end point of all nuclear reactions in the sun.
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Other interesting numbers:
88 = number of constelations as defined by the International Astronomical Union in 1920's.
Earth. See density, see length (Diamter, distance from sun.)
Planets. See length.
--------------------------------
Seven Math Problems. Solve any of these problems and earn 1 million dollars from Clay Mathematical Foundation
· The Riemann hypothesis
· Yang-Mills Theory and the Mass Gap Hypothesis
· The P vs. NP Problem
· The Navier-Stokes Equations
· The Poincare Conjecture
· The Birch and Swinnerton-Dyer Conjecture
· The Hodge Conjecture
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15,000,000,000 (15 billion years): estimated time ago at which the universe would have been a single point based upon current estimated rates of expansion of the universe. (Gardner, 4)- See Distance for other astronomical distances.
12,000,000,000 (12 billion years): estimated age of universe (Gardner, 6)
4.5 billion yrs "age" of sun
5 billion yrs How long the sun has left before all H turns into He and sun turns into red giant.
thousands of yrs ago. Egyptiand built Lead rod and vinegar "bateries"
200,000,000 (200 million years) = estimate time sun takes to make single rotation around solar system. (Gardner, 6)
6th century BC Pythagorus of Samos
470-380 BC Democritus called the ultimately small particle atomos from greek word meaning indivisible.
382-322 BC Aristotle suggested four basic substances Earth, Water, Air, Fire.
100 Hero of Alexandria and Philo of Byzantium made simple "thermoscopes"
130 (appx) Galen, a Greek physician born in Pergamum (Now Gergama) (Turkey) Was pchif physician to the gladiators at Pergamum for 5 yres from AD 157. Friend and physician on Emperor Commodus. Summed up teachings of Hippocraties (resulting in Hoppocraties being known as the Father of Medicine.) Did many disections, especially on animals
180 AD Emperor Marcus Aurelius Died, son Commodus becomes emperor.
2nd centruy AD Ptolemy of Alexandra, Egypt wrote "The Mathematical Compilation" in Greek. (Arabic title the Almagest "the Greatest"
286 Roman Empire Divided into Eastern and Western parts.
330 Constantinope founded.
400-900 AD The Dark Ages
900 to 1400's The Middle Ages
1400's to pres Modern Times.
1342 Geoffrey Chaucer (1342-1400) born - Author of The Canterbury Tales.
1400 Geoffry Chaucer (1342-1400) dies.
1400 Johan Gutenberg (1400-1468) Born
1422 Wililam Caxton (1422-1492) -brought printing press to england, see 1469.
1452-1519 Leonardo da Vinci (Mona Lisa & Last Supper)
1453 100 years war ends.
1453 May 29 Turks capture Constantinople
1454 Johann Gutenberg (1400-1468) put out a Bible in double columns with 42 lines of Latin to the page. 300 copies of 1282 pages.
1455 War of Roses Starts.
1469 or 1470 Thomas Malory completes Morte d Arthur - stories of King Arthur and Knights of the round table
1473 Nicolas Copernicus Born.
1475 Sebastian Cabot (1475-1557) born see 1498.
1475-1483 Sistine Chapel built.
1476 William Caxton (1422-1491) prints the first books using movable type in England: Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and -later- Malory's Morte d' Arhur (1485
1483-1546 Martin Luther.
1485 William Caxton prints Malory's Morte d' Arthur in movable type (see 1476)
1491 Nicolas Copernicus starts studies at University of Krakow
1492 Christopher Columbus sets of on first trip to Americas
1498 Sebastian Cabot (1475-1557) Discovers areas now known as Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and New England. First European, after the vikings, to touch North America.
1508-1512 Michelangelo Buonarroti painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
1514 Dec 31 Vasalius born in Brussels. (his Father was the royal pharmacist to Charles V, the "Holy Roman Emperor" - not Holy, not Roman (but German), not Empire)
1517 Oct 31 Martin Luther nailed 95 Thesis to church door
1533 Vasalius attends medical school in Paris.
1535-1541 Michelangelo Buonarroti painted the Last Judgement over the altar of the Sistine Chapel.
1538 Vasulius publishes Tabluae Anatomica Sex (Six Anatomical Pictures)
1543 Copernicus, Nicolas Dies.
1543 Nicolas Copernicus's book "De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of Celestial Bodies) is published. Showed that the motion of planets was more easily described by using the sun as center of solar system. (see 1835)
1543 Andreas Vesalius's book De Humani Corporis Fabirca (On the Sturcture of the Human Body) published. (And it's summary for students, the Epitome)
1543 Henry VIII maries his last wive Catherine Parr
1546 Martin Luther dies
1546 Dec 14-1601 Brahe, Tycho. Made measurements of planetary motion which Kepler used.
1544-1603 Gilber, William. investigated magnetic field of earth
1550's -early Leonard Digges invents teh Telescope
1553 Henry VIII dies. Queen Mary comes to throne in England
1557 Sebastian Cabot (1475-1557) dies - see 1498.
1558 Queen Elizath comes to throne.
1559 Leonard Digges dies
1562 Gabriele Fallopie dies. (A student of Vasalius who discovered "Fallopian Tubes") (Arround this time Bartolomen Eustachio describes the tube linking middle ear to the pharynx.)
1564 Oct Vasalius dies
1564-1642 Galileo, Galilei
1561-1636 Santorio Santorio. Adapted air thermometer to measure body temp in illness.
1468 Johann Gutenberg dies.
1564-1616 William Shakesphere
1570-1619 Hans Lippershey: Patented 1st Telescope in 1608
1571 Leonard Digges's book Pantometria posthumously published by his son Thomas Digges. Describes the telescope.
1571-1631 Kepler, Johann. Uned Tycho's measurements to develope the three laws of planetary motion with elipital orbits.
(Described the solar system as we now know it.)
1572 Nov 11 Tycho fisrt observes the new star in Cassiopia which was visible for 18 mths. Compares it with a description by Hipparchus from 125 BC.
1576 Thomas Digges publishes Prognostication Everlasting. Describes multitude of stars extending to infinity in all directions. (Was he looking at the Milky Way with his father's telescope?)
1577 Tycho observed a commet & demonstrated that it was crossing the orbits of the planets.
1595 Thomas Digges Dies.
1600 William Shakespheare's Hamlet first performed
1601 Tycho Brahe dies.
1608 1st telescope patented.
1610, Jan Galileo discovered 4 satelites around Jupiter.
1616 William Shakesphere Dies.
1627-1691 Boyle, Robert
1628 Harvy publishes "De Motu Cordis et Sanguinis in Animalibus (On the Motion of the Heart and Blood in Animals") Describing circulation system. Calculated cardiac output at 60 cc/beat -> 260 l/h.
1632-1723 Anton Von Leeuwenhook
1635-1703 Robert Hooke
1637 Rene Descartes publishes Discourse on Method, which describes the heart as purely a mechanical pump.
1642-1727 Issac Newton
1657 Christiaan Huygens patents Pendulum Clock.
1661 English chemist Robert Boyle published Sceptical Chemist. He suggested that elememnt had to be tested in chemical lab. Only if it could not be broken down into simpler substances could it be called an element. The twelve known substances in Boyles time: Gold, Silver, Copper, Tin, Iron, Lead, Mercury, Carbon, Sulfur. Arsenic, Antimony, Phosphorus.
1642-1727 Newton, Isaac
1660-1734 Stahl, Georg Ernst. Developed the later disproved phlogitson theory of combustion
1676 Ole Roemer made the first accurate measurement of the speed of light using Jupiter's moons
1685 Johan Sebastian Bach born (d. 1750)
1685 Feb 23 George Frideric Handel Born (d 1759)
1686-1736 Farenheit, Daniel Made 1st mercury thermometer in 1714
1687 Newton publised his Philosphae Naturalis Principia Mathematica.
1700-1748 van Kleist, Georg E. First described a Leyden jar
Leyden jar: first device to be able to store large amounts of electric charge.
1701-1744 Celsius, Anders
1701-1778 Linnaeus, Carolus. Reversed Celsius Temp Scale (from 100 melting, 0 boiling.)
1706-1790 Benjamine Franklin
1714 Daniel Farenheit made 1st mercury thermometer
1732 F.J Haydn born (d. 1809)
1736-1819 Watt, James
1742 Hanel completed Messiah
1743-1794 Lavoisier, Antoine Laurent. demonstrated oxygens role in combustion.
Lav: disproved Stahl's phlogiston theory. In 1789 he published Elementary Treatise on Chemistry. Included a table listing 31 chemical elements.
1743-1822 Hauy, Rene-Just (Father of Crystalography)
1747-1827 Volta, Alessandro -built first modern batery.
1750 JS Bach dies
1752 In June Benjamin Franklin, performs famous kite experiment
1756 W.A. Mozart born (d. 1791)
1759 April 14 Geroge Frideric Handel Dies.
1766-1844 Dalton, John. English chemist who in 1808 published book New System of Chemical Philosophy spelling out his atomic theory in great detail.
1770 Dec 17 Ludwig Van Beethovin born
1774 Oxygen discovered.
1775-1836 Ampere, Andre Marie
1776-1856 Avogadro, Amedro
1783 in Paris, the Montgolfier brothers become the first men to fly in a balloon
1791 W.A. Mozart dies (b. 1756)
1791-1872 Morse, SAMUEL FINLEY Breese
1803-1853 Doppler, Christian
1809 F.J. Haydn dies.
1811 Avogadro A proposed there is a constant # of Atoms/mole of substance (6.023 x 10 ^23)
1814-1874 Angstrom, Anders Jonas. Swedish. one of founders of spectroscopy. in 1862, used spectroscopy to demonstrate existance of hydrogen in the sun.
1822-1895 Louis Pasteur
1824-1887 Kirchoff, Robert. Worked out principles of spectroscopy by 1859
1824-1907 Kelvin, Wiliam Thomson Lord. (Kelvin scale 1848)
1827 March 26 Ludwig Van Beethoven Dies
1831-1879 Maxwell, James. Greatest theoretical physicist of 19th century
1833 Michael Faraday put forward laws of electronics
1834-1907 Mendeleev, Dmitri Ivanovich. Russian chemist published his first version of periodic table in 1869 with 63 elements
1835 Nicolas Copernicus's (1473-1543) book was taken of banned list by Roman Catholic church
1838 Samuel Finley Breese Morse received patent for his telegraph invention.
1838-1923 Morley E.W., with Michelson, experimented with speed of light at right angle to earths motion.
May 24, 1844 Morse sent the famous words from the Bible, Number 23:23,What hath God wrought! on his telegraph from the US Capitol Building in Washington, DC to the B7O Railroad Depot in Baltimore, MD
1847-1931 Thomas Edison Born (Feb. 11, 1847-Oct. 18th, 1931)
1850 Rudolf JE Clausius (1822-1888) discovered 2nd law of thermodynamics
1896 Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852-1908) French physicist showed that uranium atoms broke down and gave off penetrating radiation.
1897 Joseph John Thomson (1856-1940), English physicist presented final evidence that cathode rays consisted of electrically charged particles 1/1837th the mass of the hydrogen atom, the lightest atom known. -
1852-1908 Becquerel Antoine Henri. First identified Alpha particles
1852-1931 Michelson, Albert A, see Morley. discredited "luminiferous ether" theory of light propogation.
1871-1937 Rutherford, Ernest.
1874, GUGLIELMO MARCONI was born in Bologna in april the 25th, 1874, son of Annie Jameson, (of Jameson Whiskey). Died july 20, 1937
1876: Alexander Grahm Bell invented the telephone.
1879-1955 Einstein, Albert.
1887 the german HEINRICH HERTZ, using periodic currents at very high frequency, demonstrated the real existence of electromagnetic waves transforming the "undulatory movement" into a stationary phenomenon, which could be easily checked in a laboratory
1889-1953 Hubble, Edwin.
1899-1980 Van Vleck, John H. "Van Vleck paramagnetism." Ligand field theory.
1895, Guglielmo Marconi transmitted a radio signal 3 km.
1900 The German physicist Max Planck introduced the Planck constnant
1901, Dec 12 around 12.30, local time, MARCONI received first trans atlantic radio signal.
1903, Dec Wright Brother's First Flight.
1909, Dec 10 GUGLIELMO MARCONI was awarded the Nobel prize for Physics.
1901-1976 Heisenberg, Werner Karl. "Father of Quantum Mechanics" Theory of Uncertainty in 1927.
1920's International Astonomical Union Defined the 88 Constelations.
1911 Earnest Rutherford (1871-1937) bombarded thin metal foil with radioactive radiation demonstrated that atoms contain almost all their mass in very tiny nucleus at center of atom.
1911 Omnes, Heinke Kamerlingh discovered superconductivity.
1912 MARCONI invented a way to transmit human voice by radio
1913 Henry Gwyn-Jeffreys Mosely (1887-1915) was able to show that atomic nuclei of different elements had positive charges of characteristic size. (Same for atoms of same element. different for atoms of different elements.)
1914 Soddy, Frederick (1877-1956), English Chemist, discovered isotopes
1916 Albert Einstein announced his general theory of relativity
1922, Alexander Friedmann, , Russian physicist, in 1922 used Einstein's equations to prove that the universe could either shrink or expand
Willem de Sitter, Dutch astronomer , calculated Einstein's equation and proved that the universe was actually expanding.
1931 Wolfgang Pauli (1900-1958) Austrian physicist who suggested that when an electron was emited in radioactive breakdown it had to be accompanied by another particle without mass or electrical charge. (Later to be discovered in 1956 as neutrino)
1932 American physicist Carl David Andersion (1905- ) detected antielectrons (positrions)
1943 b. Hawking, Stephen.
1945, July 16, 5:30 AM Detonation of 1st Atomic Bomb
1945, Aug 6, 9. US Used atomic weapons against Japan.
1955 Italian physisist Owen Chamberlain (1920- ) detected antiproton
1956 Frederick Reines (1918- ) American physicist detected neutrino.
1967 John Wheeler coined the term "Black Hole"
1981: IBM announces it's IBM PC (Intel 8088 processor, 64K of memory (expandable to 256K), two floppy disks and an 80 character by 25 lines Colour Graphics Adapter (CGA) )
60,000,000,000 years - estimated time that it would take to consume all the hydrogen in the sun at current rate (VfH pg 192)
Strange phenomenom:
Polarization of light
Piezoelectricity.
Questions;
What is x-ray chrstalography & how is it used in synthesis of penicillin & insulin.
What is optical minerology?
What is paramagnetism?
How does one quantify magnetic field.
List nobel prize winners.
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References:
Gardner, Joseph L. (ed.) Readers Digest Atlas of the World. 1987.
VfH =View from Height, Asimov, Isaac.